What is Carbon
Carbon is one of the chemical elements found in nature. The name anthracite also calls it. This component primarily consists of hydrogen atoms bound together within. It usually appears black in color just like the graphite and has a soft and shiny texture. The word carbon derives from the Latin word ‘carbo’ which means charcoal. It is as shown in the below image. It is the 6th most abundant element found in the universe. It is obtained from the deposits of coal.
If you look at the periodic table, the carbon element with symbol C is found in the group number 14 with period 2 and has an atomic number 6. This element exists in different forms which otherwise called as allotropes.Carbon Types
There are three types of allotropes said to exist in nature, they are amorphous carbon, graphite, and diamond.
- Amorphous carbon
When carbon is burned in the presence of oxygen, it leads to the formation of the black soot-like substance called as amorphous carbon. This type of carbon finds many applications like in the manufacture of rubber products, etc.
As many of you might be knowing about the graphite used in your lead pencils. Yes, graphite is usually a naturally occurring substance produced in the absence of oxygen. There are many uses of graphite-like in the manufacturing of steel products, in pencils, etc.
Diamond, also known as the hardest substances on the planet, it is the third form of carbon occurring naturally on the earth. It has a transparent and a colorless appearance. It is formed when graphite is treated under high temperatures and pressures. Diamond has many uses and applications.
Properties of Carbon
Some of the physical and chemical properties of carbon are tabulated below-
|Appearance||Carbon has a soft and a grayish or a black colored appearance.|
|Melting point||Melting point of 3825°C|
|Boiling Point||It boils at 3825°C, 6917°F, 4098 K|
|Density||It has a density of about 2.267 g/mL|
|Isotopes||Carbon has isotopes such as 12C, 13C, 14C|
|Electronic configuration||[He] 2s22p2|
|Relative atomic mass||12.011|
Uses of Carbon
- Impure carbon is used in industries for smelting of metals
- It is used in the manufacture of tennis rackets, fishing rods, rockets, airplanes, etc.
- Graphite form of carbon is used in lead pencils
- Diamonds are used in jewelry and also for the purpose of drilling, cutting rocks, etc.
- Carbon also exists in the form of coal, which is used as a fuel for various purposes.
- Activated charcoal is used for the purpose of filtration of water
- Diamond films protect the surfaces of razor blades
- Used as an lubricant
- Used in the manufacture of electrodes, dry cells, etc.