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Learn all about the evolution of Anesthesia!

Team StoryWeavers|December 1, 2020| 175

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You are on the football field. It is one of the finest matches you ever played, the score is 2-3. With the lead, your team is just a goal away from sweet victory. Your teammate passes the ball to you and you decide to take it to the goal post with a headshot.

Football injury

Just as you’re about to head the ball, your opponent makes a move, and his kick lands right on your face! Oh the pain, so excruciating! Next thing you know, the doctors are operating you in the Operation Theatre. But you can’t feel a thing! Remember, the doctor gave you some injection and within seconds all your pain vanished! Later, you ask the doctor what was the injection, and he replies, “Anesthesia”

You have been anesthetised!

But what does it mean? How does it work? When was it discovered? 

We got everything covered here for you. Let’s get started on this journey forgetting all the pain, it’s time for some info gain!

Until the discovery of general anaesthesia, as we know it today,  around the mid 19th century, surgery was performed only as a last and rather desperate resort. Performed with the patient being conscious and without any pain relief!  It was beset with unimaginable terror, unspeakable agony, and considerable risk.

What is Anesthesia?

When people have surgery, stitches or other things that might be painful, they are given a special medicine so that their body doesn’t hear, see or feel anything during the surgery. This medicine is called anesthesia. The doctor who administers this medicine is called an anesthesiologist. 

What are the types of anesthesia?

There are two types of anesthesia – general anesthesia and local anesthesia. General anesthesia helps the patient fall asleep for a little bit so that they don’t feel any pain while the doctors are operating. Local anesthesia doesn’t make one fall asleep, but it numbs a particular area in the body. So the patient doesn’t feel the pain while they get stitches or undergo any minor surgeries. General anesthesia works by interrupting nerve signals in the brain and body. It prevents the brain from processing pain and remembering what happened during the surgery. It acts by cutting off all the electricity in the body. Similarly, Local anesthesia blocks the nerves that connect a particular body part or region to the brain, preventing the nerves from carrying pain signals to the brain. If you’re thinking that anesthesia is different from the everyday painkillers around you, you’re a 100% right!

meme

Anesthetic is a term used for a substance that produces, in a controllable manner, an absence of perception of all sensation. It enables doctors to produce unconsciousness and muscle relaxation sufficient to perform procedures painlessly.  These are different from analgesics aka painkillers which are substances that temporarily relieve pain without causing loss of consciousness.

How is anesthesia given?

An anesthesiologist can give you general anesthesia via injection or by letting you inhale an anesthetic. Local anesthesia is usually given via injection to the affected part of the body or allowed to absorb into the skin of that area. 

Evolution of Anesthesia 

Since ancient days, pain has been a topic of concern for many philosophers for obvious reasons. Greek philosopher Aristotle considered pain as an emotion, like joy. Similarly, English philosopher Thomas More referred to pain as “the direct opposite of pleasure.” The 15th century French philosopher  Rene Descartes perceived it as a sensation, like hot or cold. Although it is difficult to pinpoint the true nature of pain, we can, however, identify some of the methods that man used to numb it. 

Let’s take a look at the evolution of anesthesia:

4000 B.C.

Sumerian clay tablet

Sumerian clay tablet specimen

The Sumerian clay tablet is considered to be the world’s oldest recorded list of medical prescriptions. It is believed by some scholars that the opium poppy is referred to on the tablet. Similarly Pedanius Dioscorides, a Greek physician and pharmacologist,  too, suggested the use of opium and the mandrake plant mixed with grape juice, before operating on limbs.

                        Opium poppy Mandrake

Opium poppy and Mandrake plant

Harry Potter, anyone?

Does the name mandrake sound familiar?

2250 B.C.

In the famous words of William Shakespeare  from Much Ado About Nothing, “For there was never yet a philosopher that could endure the toothache patiently.” One of the earliest records of analgesia (an inability to feel pain) is on a Babylonian clay tablet from 2250 B.C., which describes a remedy for toothache. Powdered henbane seeds mixed with gum mastic were inserted into the cavity of a decayed, aching tooth.

1000 B.C.

The Hindu Charaka and Susruta Samhita by Sushruta – the father of Indian medicine and plastic surgery- written around 1000 B.C., mentions the use of grape juice and fumes of the cannabis sativa plant to produce “insensibility to pain.”

Sushruta Samhita

Sushruta Samhita Source: LA county museum of art

1170 A.D.

In 1170 A.D., Rogerius, a surgeon and physician from modern-day Italy,  wrote Chirurgia Magistri Rogeri, the first book on Western surgery. It makes a mention of monks using sponges soaked in opium and holding over the patient’s nose for surgical procedures, hinting at general anesthesia through inhalation as it is practised today.

Chirurgia magistri Rogeri s

Chirurgia magistri Rogeri source: sciencesource

1525 

Paracelsus was a Swiss physician, alchemist, and philosopher of the German Renaissance. He pioneered several aspects of the “medical revolution” of the Renaissance. He was the first to use ether, (an organic compound with one oxygen atom connected to two alkyl) on animals.

Ether on animals

Ether used by Paracelsus

1804

Japan’s Hanaoka Seishu, a surgeon with the knowledge of Chinese herbal medicine formulated his general anesthetic ointment, Tsusensan. A compound made up of extracts of several different plants like Korean morning glory, monkshood, Cnidium rhizome, cobra lily, ginseng, etc.

tsusensan

Plants used in Tsusensan

1806 

After centuries of using opium as a painkiller, Dr. Friederich Wilhelm Sertuerner, an apothecary’s assistant in modern-day Germany, isolated the alkaloid of opium. He called it “morphium” after the Greek god of dreams, Morpheus. Later it was changed to morphia or morphine.

                              opiumMorphine

Opium and Morphine

1845 – 46

Dr. Horace Wells, after bravely volunteering to inhale nitrous oxide for his own dental extraction, in Massachusetts in 1845, demonstrated the use of nitrous oxide as anesthesia for a tooth extraction.

Nitrous oxide

Nitrous oxide

On October 16, 1846,  Dr. William T G Morton made history by becoming the first person in the world to publicly and successfully demonstrate the use of ether anesthesia for surgery. This occurred at what came to be called “The Ether Dome,” at Massachusetts General Hospital on patient Edward Gilbert Abbott. On December 21, surgeons Dr. William Scott and Dr. Robert Liston, operated on limbs of etherized patients – the first such surgical anesthetics in the British Isles.

First anesthetic operation

“First Operation Under Ether” painting by Robert C. Hinckley. Courtesy of the Boston Medical Library in the Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine. Source: woodlibrarymuesuem

1847

Professor James Y Simpson, a Scottish obstetrician, began administering chloroform to women for pain during childbirth. Chloroform quickly became a popular anesthetic for surgery and dental procedures as well. Although Chloroform was discovered in 1831, it had never been used as anesthesia. Dr. John Snow, an anesthetist from London, popularized obstetric anesthesia by chloroforming Queen Victoria for the birth of Prince Leopold (1853) and Princess Beatrice (1857).

                                 ChloroformQueen Victoria

Chloroform and Queen Victoria

1853

Dr. Charles Pravaz and Dr. Alexander Wood independently invented the hollow hypodermic (hypo -under, dermin- the skin) needle. They used it to inject morphine as a painkiller.

Syringe

Hypodermic syringe

1884

Dr. Karl Koller , a Viennese ophthalmologist and colleague of famous neurologist and father of psychoanalysis,  Sigmund Freud, introduced local anesthesia with the use of Benzoylmethylecgonine as an anesthetic for eye surgery.

                                                        Karl Koller

Benzoylmethylecgonine and Karl Koller

1898

Dr. August Bier conducted the first spinal anesthetic surgery. He also popularized the intravenous regional block. Intravenous Regional Anesthesia (IVRA) or Bier’s Block Anesthesia is an anesthetic technique, where a local anesthetic is injected intravenously and it only affects/numbs the target area in the body i.e.any of the following – hand, wrist, forearm, elbow, upper arm, and shoulder or hip, thigh, knee, lower leg, ankle, and foot.

                                         Dr August Bier Syringe

Dr August Bier and his intravenous injection for anesthesia.

1902

 Dr. Mathias J. Seifert of Chicago coined the words “anesthesiology” and “anesthesiologist.” He asserted that an “ANESTHETIST” is a technician and an “ANESTHESIOLOGIST” is the scientific authority on anesthesia and anesthetics.

The Letter

Copy of letter from Dr Seifert to Dr. Woods.

1905

Dr. A Frederick Erdmann (1867-1953), founded the Long Island Society of Anesthetists (LISA), the first professional anesthesia society in the USA. Later renamed to American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) as we know today. 

1927

Dr. Ralph M Waters joins the University of Wisconsin, Madison. Dr Waters pioneered carbon dioxide absorbing apparatus (To-and-Fro Canister), and inhalational anesthetic gas – cyclopropane – a relatively potent, non-irritating and sweet smelling agent, which made induction of anaesthesia by inhalation rapid and pleasant.

                      To and fro absorbing machine cyclopropane

Dr. Water’s carbon-absorbing apparatus and cyclopropane

1941

Dr. Henry K. Beecher, anesthesiologist, medical ethicist, and investigator of the placebo effect at Harvard Medical School, pioneered the understanding of medical ethics, patient consent, clinical trials, and the placebo effect.

Dr Henry Beecher

Dr. Henry Beecher

1956

The UK’s Dr. Michael Johnstone clinically introduced halothane, the first modern-day general anesthetic. It became popular given its lower cost and lack of airway irritation i.e. irritation caused while inhaling air. 

Halothane

One of the first man-made, non-explosive liquid anesthetics was halothane (Fluothane.)

1972

Isoflurane, an improvement over Halothane is clinically introduced as an inhalational anesthetic. 

Isoflurane

Isoflurane

1999

In its report To Err is Human, the Institute of Medicine praised the efforts of anesthesiologists in improving patient safety.

In the last two decades, most of the advances in this field have been primarily focused on modifying the chemical structures of existing drugs or drug classes and delivery methods of anesthesia, with the intent to improve their effects and side effects. 

Man and pain have coexisted since man’s existence. It is one of the most basic human experiences. Each one of us has gone through it in some variation already. But now you know how mankind deals with it. In other words:

They say time heals all pain, but ever since anesthesia, we slayin’!

Victory

Did you enjoy reading this article? Did you learn something new today? Share your learning with us in the comment section below.

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About the Author


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Charu Verma

Charu, a feminist and an accidental writer, is yet to master the art of writing about herself. Always curious to learn new stuff, she ends up spending a lot of time unlearning the incorrect lessons. She enjoys all sorts of stories – real, fictional, new, old, hers and would love hearing yours too. Feel free to ping her at storyweavers@byjus.com to share anything that you think is worth sharing.

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December 1, 2020

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December 2, 2020

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December 2, 2020

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December 2, 2020

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December 2, 2020

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December 2, 2020

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December 2, 2020

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December 3, 2020

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December 3, 2020

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December 3, 2020

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December 4, 2020

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December 5, 2020

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December 5, 2020

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December 5, 2020

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No Pain More Of Gain


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December 6, 2020

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December 6, 2020

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December 6, 2020

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December 6, 2020

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December 6, 2020

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December 6, 2020

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December 6, 2020

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December 7, 2020

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December 7, 2020

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December 7, 2020

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December 7, 2020

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December 8, 2020

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December 8, 2020

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December 8, 2020

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December 8, 2020

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December 8, 2020

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Krishna Pandey

December 8, 2020

Evolution
That’s what evrything is about . The only valid truth is that change is the only constant . The above-mentioned information gives me an understanding of how anaesthesia has gone through several changes . I end up only to state that nothing is perfect and we jst get things better by time . A time may come when humans will not need anaesthesia at all!! , who knows??
Thanks BYJU’S for such precious info


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December 9, 2020

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December 9, 2020

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December 9, 2020

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Sagar Vijay Shinde

December 9, 2020

I know the term Anesthesia very well but I did not know the real history of the Anesthesia . Thanks for this useful information.


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December 9, 2020

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December 9, 2020

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December 9, 2020

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December 9, 2020

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December 10, 2020

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December 10, 2020

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December 10, 2020

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December 10, 2020

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AWESOME

December 10, 2020

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December 10, 2020

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December 10, 2020

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Very useful info…. And it is much more interesting to read about such things….. Byjus really helf us a lot to understand scienve in much wonderful and interesting way…….. 😍😍😍😍💝💝💝


Pranitha

December 11, 2020

Good and very interesting pls share many interesting things regularly


Ella

December 11, 2020

Hey!
I like it very much because I’m really very much interested in knowing about anesthesia because I wanted to study anesthesia in my future


Naveena

December 11, 2020

Its very informative and helpful


gargi sharma

December 11, 2020

really interesting

nice info…I have definitely learned something new


Prajna K

December 11, 2020

Thank you mam for giving us so useful information regarding ANESTHESIA… Its wonderful!


Pavithra

December 11, 2020

It was really very informative. Thank you. Please do post regular articles and informations like this.


Ansh Shah

December 12, 2020

It is very interesting but I don’t know how they make Anastasia today


Snehal Santosh kanade

December 12, 2020

It’s very important and helpful..


Navya

December 12, 2020

It was so interesting to read that I sticked to it till the end. Learnt something new today for life😉 thank you byju’s 💗…


Ashritha

December 12, 2020

A bit of information makes the day more enthusiastic 😊


Karthik Mukundan

December 12, 2020

Thank you for this amazing information ☺️☺️


Anjel soni

December 14, 2020

Wow, I Just know The Theory Of Anesthesia Like A One Side Of A Coin Like It Is A Mediciane And other At all. But I know About It’s Type When How And Etc.


Nishat

December 15, 2020

It’s very interesting!! Please share these types of information to these curious students like us


Anuva

December 16, 2020

I loved the writing style
It was so fun reading it I realized I learned something new after completing the article


Afshana

December 16, 2020

A very easily understandable explanation 👏…Thank you


Ruksicaa

December 18, 2020

Very helpful information.Thank’s a lot Byju’s


Punitha Naayaki

December 19, 2020

It is very informative and because of this I know more about anesthesia today thank you for this information and please share many information regularly


Sasmit

December 21, 2020

I liked the content . This my first feedback .


Sanjana Roy

December 23, 2020

It was an amazing article regarding anesthesia.I have learnt a lot from this article.I was shocked and equally spell bound to learn that grape juice whhich we consume nowadays and before also was also used as anesthesia. Wlnderful ,helpful information regarding anesthesia.Loved it!! Thank you Byjus.


Raisha Sahnawaz

December 25, 2020

It is very helpful and informative


Tanvi Dhore

December 30, 2020

It’s very helpful and interesting information. Thanks so much Byju’s for this….. knowledgeable info…and thank you for increasing my knowledge….😇


Manasa

January 5, 2021

Wow!!!!
I love these facts… Pls send it regularly….
Thank you for educating us eith these amazing facts…
👍☺️☺️☺️👍👍👍


Arijeet Dutta

January 6, 2021

That’s a very informative article of the “Evolution of Anesthesia”, actually I didn’t known about the two types of Anesthesia but the evolution of this is Awesome!!!!!! Keep it up!😀😀😀😀😀😆😆😆😆😆😆👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍


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