Groundbreaking inventions, breakthroughs in the field of medicine, efforts and ideas to bring peace around the world and great creative works of literature. These are just a few of the fields for which Nobel Prizes are given every year to the most deserving candidates. SIX Nobel Prizes are awarded for each of the following categories : Literature, Physics, Chemistry, Peace, Economics, and Physiology & Medicine.
This year, in 2018, we have seen some great achievements around the world, and here are the Nobel Laureates and their fields of specialisation:
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine : Awarded to James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo who made landmark discoveries in the fight against cancer. The Nobel Prize was allotted “for their discovery of cancer therapy by the inhibition of negative immune regulation”. The laureates displayed how different strategies for inhibiting the brakes on the immune system can be used in the treatment of cancer.
Nobel Prize in Physics : The Nobel Prize for Physics was awarded to Arthur Ashkin ( who received half the prize share), Gérard Mourou and Donna Strickland (who received 1/4th prize share each) for groundbreaking inventions in the field of laser physics. Their inventions will help revolutionize medicine and the study of micro-life. Arthur Ashkin invented the optical tweezers, which are basically lasers that grab particles, atoms, viruses, bacteria etc, without destroying their structural integrity. This new invention brought to life an old science fiction theory – using radiation pressure of light to move physical objects.
Nobel Prize in Chemistry : The Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to three people. Frances H. Arnold received her award for her work towards the directed evolution of enzymes. This method has since been used to make biological catalysts for useful chemical reactions, for synthesizing new drugs and green fuels. The other half of the award was split between George Smith and Gregory Winter for developing a technique called Phage Display. The technique uses bacteria-infecting viruses to assist in the evolution of new proteins and antibodies.
Nobel Peace Prize : The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to Denis Mukwege and Nadia Murad for their efforts to end the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war and armed conflict. Denis Mukwege, who is also a physician, devoted his entire life to defending victims of these wars and crimes. Nadia Murad has acted as a witness and spokesperson on behalf of herself and other people who are victims of such abuse.
Nobel Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Science: The Nobel Prize in Economics was awarded to two people. William D.Nordhaus was awarded for integrating climate change in long-run macroeconomic analysis. The other half of the award went to Paul M.Romer for integrating technology in long-run macroeconomic analysis. Their contributions have helped integrate climate change and mainstream economics, helping the world realise that the world’s economic health is directly linked to its environmental health. Their work also focuses on the need for innovation in technology to aid positive climate change which will in turn benefit our economy.
The Nobel Laureates of 2018 are all working towards creating a better future and are a source of inspiration for all of us!